Mechanism of CBD and Its Benefits
Cannabidiol (CBD) occur naturally as a chemical compound in the resinous flower of the plant commonly known as cannabis with the botanical name Cannabis sativa Family- Cannabaceae. It is a safe and non-addictive substance which has various therapeutic uses. It is similar to another compound of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but it doesn’t possess the psychoactive property of THC.
CBD has a global interest among scientists and physicians because of its healing properties without the presence of any psychoactive effect. It interacts with the CB1 and CB2 receptors by working as an allosteric modulator (thus producing its anti-psychotic effect) which reduces the psychoactive effect of THC following an alternate pharmacological profile to interfere with cannabinoid receptors.
CBD interacts with some receptor systems to produce potential therapeutic effects. Some of which include the activation of adenosine receptors to produce its anti-anxiety or anti-inflammatory effects; stimulation of the serotonin receptor (5-HT1A) to induce anxiolytic or anti-depressant effect; activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) which causes its anti-cancer (angiogenic) effect; acting as a vanilloid receptor agonist to bring about its analgesic effect; induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated cell death thus prompting its anti-proliferation effect.
CBD oil is extracted from the flower and buds of marijuana or hemp plants. It is then sometimes diluted with a carrier oil like hemp seed oil or coconut oil.
Benefits of cannabidiol oil
CBD oil has been found to be beneficial in the following:
- As a pain reliever: The use of marijuana has been dated to as far back as 2900 B.C to treat pain. More recently, CBD was discovered by scientists as the constituent of marijuana that provides the pain-relieving effect. The body has an endocannabinoid system (ECS) which regulates pain, sleep and the immune system response. It produces neurotransmitters (endocannabinoids) which binds to the cannabinoid receptors in the nervous system. CBD helps to relieve chronic pain by influencing the endocannabinoid receptor activity, anti-inflammation and interacting with the neurotransmitters.
CBD in combination with THC, have been found to be effective in the alleviation of pain associated with diseases like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
- Reduction of depression and anxiety: The ability of CBD to act on serotonin receptor (G-coupled protein) relates its use in the management of anxiety and depression. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that regulates social behavior and mood. A study carried out indicated that a dose of 600mg CBD managed the social anxiety of people who participated in a public speaking test.
- Acne reduction: The anti-inflammatory properties of CBD oil and the capability of it to reduce sebum production from the sebaceous glands makes it useful in the treatment of acne. In a test tube study, it was found that the CBD oil prevented the secretion of excessive sebum and the activation of inflammatory cytokines ‘pro-acne agents’.
- Alleviation of cancer-related symptoms: It is said by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) that CBD may help reduce cancer symptoms and the side effects of cancer treatment (nausea, vomiting and pain). A study showed the relief of pain in individuals with cancer-related pain who didn’t experience relief from pain medication after exposure to an extract containing both THC and CBD when compared to those who received only THC extract. Though it isn’t fully endorsed for cancer treatment, more research is required for assessing its safety and efficacy.
- As an Anti-seizure: The American Epilepsy Society states that current research is being conducted to better understand the safe use of CBD in seizure disorders. CBD has shown to effectively treat symptoms related to epilepsy.
- Possession of Neuro-protective properties: Researchers are carrying out studies on the use of CBD oil to manage neurodegenerative disorders, although they believe that CBD possesses ability to act on ECS and other brain signaling systems to benefit individuals with neurological disorders. Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and stroke are examples of neurodegenerative disorders that makes the brain and nerves to degenerate over time, and CBD may help to reduce inflammation that worsens these disease symptoms.
- Heart health: Though more human studies are needed, recent research shows the benefit of CBD in heart health. It helps to reduce blood pressure and prevent heart damage.
Other potential benefits of CBD include its use in reducing psychotic symptoms, substance abuse treatment, diabetes prevention and anti-tumor effects. However, more clinical research in humans is needed.
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